Posted in Culture/History, Disability, First Peoples, General Interest, Mental Health, Michael Watson, Shakti Ghosal

Trauma, Story, and Healing


He sat on the sofa, pulled deeply into himself, almost disappearing before my eyes, as he told me about his dad’s violence. I wondered whether he knew I was in the room with him. “I feel terribly fragmented; I don’t know who I am,” he explained. “I can’t remember ever being like everyone else; they seem so at home in themselves.”

One of my teachers, a Psychoanalytically oriented clinician, always said the real problem is the second trauma. Her view was the first trauma one encounters sets the stage for PTSD and related problems; the second trauma triggers the cascade. Repeated traumas in childhood physically alter the function of the developing brain, leaving one more vulnerable to new trauma. Even if only one trauma occurs in early childhood the person may remain susceptible to PTSD via a second trauma as an adult.

An Indigenous South American teacher once told me he thought any issue should be resolved in three healing sessions. He believed that psychotherapy was a disservice to people, trapping them in their trauma and making them dependent on the therapist. His view arose from his place in a richly supportive community that fostered a sense of belonging and resilience even in the face of recent genocide.

My parents didn’t trust many people, Native or otherwise. They warned against idealizing others, noting that human beings can do bad things. They never spoke about their experiences growing up, yet lived in a  constricted, guarded manner for much of their adult lives. As I have learned about the world they and their parents grew up in I have begun to understand something about their concerns; both colonists and Natives could be ruthless towards those they identified as other.

I’ve come to believe that while the effects of trauma are fairly consistent across cultures, the ways people understand what has happened to them are culturally shaped. Trauma is, above all else, a crisis of meaning, and meaning is shaped by experience, family, and culture. The meanings families and communities attribute to events are culturally dependent and help to shape the individual’s understanding of what happened to them. This suggests strongly that what may be healing  in small Native communities in South America may not be as effective in urban North American settings, simply because the context is dramatically different.

It can be tempting for therapists and other healers to believe they understand the cultural context of their patients’ suffering. Indeed, most systems of psychotherapy have a universal frame of reference, generalizing a set of culturally embedded assumptions to all people. This serves as a sort of psychological colonialism, although the cultural biases and beliefs may be deeply buried among universalizing psychological studies and jargon.

Of course, we are each shaped by culture and experience. So what do we do? How do we find a context for healing? One way in is to truly listen to the stories our patients bring to us. If we remember that events are less important than the stories we tell about them, the meanings we confer on them, we are on the right path. We are each unique beings walking the road of this life; we are also embodiments of the Holy Ones. I like to imagine that each of us comes into being as the intersection of the mundane and the Holy. The stories we tell reflect our understanding of our experiences at that intersection.

When trauma enters the picture things can become terribly confusing and painfully dark; at such times the world can seem a violent and dangerous place. Many of our Indigenous creation stories talk about the time long ago when monsters threatened to devour all the humans and other beings. They also tell us about the birth of the cultural heroes who will eventually slay most of the monsters, sparing a few so the world can be in balance. These stories, and the healing ceremonies that arise from them, attempt to address the crises of meaning that traumas bring.

Trauma can fragment: persons, families and cultures. Grandmother Spider taught us to weave. She reminds us we are made in her image and can use our stories to create and repair our world.   We spin stories to weave the fabric of meaning in our lives. We can also use story to reweave that fabric, over time pulling together the fragments into a cohesive, beautiful whole. This is challenging work and proceeds at a pace determined by the needs of the person. There is no one meaning  for events, nor is there one way to heal from trauma. We are unfolding stories, complex meaning-seeking being-systems. The path forward is unknown, although we may see parts of the trail ahead. We are stories in progress. It is good to remember this.

– Michael Watson, Ph.D.

© 2013, essay and photographs (includes the one below), Michael Watson, All rights reserved

michael drumMICHAEL WATSON, M.A., Ph.D., LCMHC (Dreaming the World) ~ is a contributing editor to Into the Bardo, an essayist and a practitioner of the Shamanic arts, psychotherapist, educator and artist of Native American and European descent. He lives and works in Burlington, Vermont, where he teaches in undergraduate and graduate programs at Burlington College,. He was once Dean of Students there. Recently Michael has been teaching in India and Hong Kong. His experiences are documented on his blog. In childhood he had polio, an event that taught him much about challenge, struggle, isolation, and healing.

14 thoughts on “Trauma, Story, and Healing

  1. We are nothing, if not our stories and memories. The mythologies we shape of ourselves. And yes, it is in the re-weaving, in the examined life that we make ourselves whole. Thank you for penning this, Michael .


  2. Interesting and compassionate way to help from the therapist perspective and one that we can adapt one-on-one, I should think … in the sense of listening and awareness and respect for story. Thanks, Michael.


    1. Hi Jamie! I believe friends can listen and encourage healing. Therapists have a have a unique role but we can’t do all that needs done. Folks need friends to encourage and support them.


  3. Very interesting, Michael. I have come to believe that everyone holds the answers to their healing inside; they can know what it looks like to be more whole and what they need to join the fragmented pieces into a more desirable whole. I love the analogy of the weaver, I also have found the analogy of a jigsaw puzzle helpful. I think the work of the healer is to listen very carefully and to be able to form well timed questions or observations that help people see their selves and their world with new truths. Thanks for writing this post – I always enjoy thinking about the work I did, but haven’t quite let go of in my heart.


  4. Excellent description about a subject not easily described. I’m going to visit Grandmother Spider and see what she has to say. I experienced childhood abuse and it seems as though I rewove my reaction to my story. However, as I have observed that fear drives everyone I know to some extent, I have also seen that fear lurks beneath my second story. So it’s not gone….just covered up. What has happened is that I identify less with it. A tangled web……is it not.


    1. Hi Gretchen, We humans seem innately driven to create story, to make sense of our experiences. Trauma generates stories that may be difficult to work with, in part because key pieces of the meaning we attribute to it remain hidden. The task of being open to the story can seem daunting, indeed. (Thus the fear?) In spite of this, we move forward with our lives and find healing.


  5. I was doing trauma debriefing in Africa during the war-torn nineties, and healing does happen in many different cutural ways that we could never achieve through psychological colonialism. I love your description that trauma is a crisis of meaning. Meaning is certainly lost in the midst of war, disease, famine and displacement.


    1. Thank you. Trauma work in Africa surely brought you to the heart of the problem. Meaning is lost in trauma, and as you hint, may be regained in the healing process. So much work that needs done around the country and world!


  6. This is the second reminder in less than a week of how our perceptions are culturally-based and how easy it is to misunderstand other if we don’t learn about their world view. Wise observations, Michael and a good basis to move toward self-understanding, too.


    1. Thank you, Victoria. At dinner with colleagues this evening, hours of conversation about things becoming lost in translation, and the challenges of encouraging communities to awaken to the diversity within them. It was a good, if hard, conversation.


  7. I really enjoyed reading this. I agree that context is important, especially when one considers that even though a person may grow to adulthood, the wounded child is still there, inside. Which aspect of the person do you treat and address, or is it a combination of both, just as the person is a combination of both adult/child? Do we listen for the stories told to us by the wounded child or by the adult who has processed the pain/trauma (or perhaps buried it) in order to find the best way to help a person heal? PTSD has been an interest of mine for a long time. I agree with you that there is not a “one-size-fits-all” method of treatment, but do you think that treatment is all that is available? Is there a ‘cure’? Aside from the cornucopia of pharmaceutical drugs available, do you think it’s possible for the traumatized mind to truly become “whole” again or is it destined to *have* to weave a new story made up of the fragments? I’m sorry if my questions are bothersome or unclear. I learn something every time I read your work and it’s nice to be able to directly ask the source. 🙂


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